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Piazza Duomo

Piazza Duomo

~~The monument was built in the second century , the exact date is uncertain, but the type of architecture argues in favor of the era between the emperors Hadrian and Antoninus Pius . He was joined together by the lava eruption of 252-253 but not destroyed . In the fifth century Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths used it as a quarry for building material for the construction of masonry buildings , and later in the eleventh century, Roger II of Sicily took out more structures and materials for the construction of the Cathedral of St. Agatha , on the apses is still recognizable its perfectly cut stones used, perhaps , even in the Castello Ursino. In the thirteenth century , according to tradition, its entrances were used by the Angevins to enter the city during the so-called War of the Vespers . In the following century the entrances were walled up and the ruin was incorporated into the network of fortifications Aragonese ( 1302 ) . A safety plan of construction of the ruins came in 1550 ; the first and second floor were shot down, with their own ruins came the filling of the tunnels. After the earthquake of 1693, it was finally buried and was later transformed into the parade ground. Following this, new houses were built above the roof as well as the church of San Biagio (called ' A Carcaredda , ie the furnace )~~The temple was destroyed and rebuilt several times after earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that have taken place over time. The first building dates back to the 1078-1093 period, and was built on the ruins of the Achilliane baths dating back to the Romans, on the initiative of Count Roger, acquiring all the characteristics of ecclesia provided (i.e., fortified). In 1169, a catastrophic earthquake demolished it almost completely, leaving intact only the apse. In 1194 a fire made considerable damage and finally in 1693, the earthquake that struck the Noto Valley almost completely destroyed. The Norman remains consist of two towers hubs in the body of the high transept (perhaps coeval to the primitive system) and three semi-circular apses, which can be seen from the courtyard of the Archbishop and are composed of large blocks of lava, most of which was recovered from Roman buildings of the imperial age. Portions of the wall of the sphere and the wall of the prospectus have been incorporated in the eighteenth-century reconstruction.~~The baths Achilliane are spa facilities dated to the fourth or fifth century and located in Piazza del Duomo. They are accessed via a hallway with vaulted ceiling in the cavity between the Roman structures and the foundations of the Cathedral, to which access is made by a short flight of steps from different eras on the left side of the facade. The plant name is derived from an inscription on a slab of marble from Luni, which fell into six main and very incomplete fragments, probably dating to the first half of the fifth century, now on display in the Civic Museum at the Castle Ursino. The age of the building's foundation is still debated, but it is probable that it already existed in the fourth century: the existence of the building in the era of Constantine is based on the reuse inside the cathedral of a group of capitals that could come from this period. Buried by the earthquakes of February 4, 1169 and January 11, 1693, the remains - already known in antiquity - were first released by the Prince of Biscari. In 1856, during the construction of the tunnel that passes under the Seminary of Clerks (now the seat of the Fish) they found some ruins that were also attributed to the same building, perhaps relevant to a steam bath, as there were no traces of a hypocaust under floor. The structure had to extend to the Via Garibaldi, where they found other leftovers. According to the reconstruction of the complex in the nineteenth century, the currently visible part probably included only a part of the frigidarium. From 1974 to 1994 they were closed because they were considered unsafe. They were reopened after a renovation of the town (1997) and again closed for flooding problems. After the work of paving the Piazza del Duomo (2004-2006) - during which they felt compelled to cover the upper surface of the cover (which is at the same height of the square) with a massive steel plate to reinforce the ' flagstone of the square itself - the spa building was re- opened to the public.~~The Piazza del Duomo of Catania is the main square of the city. Three roads converge to it: via Etnea the road of Catania historic centre, via Garibaldi and Via Vittorio Emanuele, which crosses the town from east to west. On the eastern side of the square is the Cathedral of Saint Agatha, the patron saint of the city, celebrated on the 5th of February.
On the north side is the Palace of the Elephants, i.e. the town hall. On the other side of the square are the Fountain dell'Amenano, very famous for the inhabitants of Catania, where coins are thrown (as in the fountain in Rome) and, next to it, the Palace of the Clerics that is attached to the cathedral by a passage, which runs on Port Uzeda. The latter, together with the port of Charles V, is part of the only remaining stretch of the city walls.
At the centre of the square is what is the symbol of Catania, or " u Liotru “, a lava stone statue depicting an elephant, topped by an obelisk at the centre of a marble fountain.

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